Psychological Disorders: Types and Examples

A distressed person sitting on the sofa with their head bent down, indicating suffering from a psychological disorder.

Psychological disorders are also known as mental health disorders.  

These disorders affect the way we think, feel, act, and function in the world. 

The list of psychological disorders includes many types, such as anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Anxiety and depression are two of the most common disorders experienced worldwide.  

Moreover, each disorder has its own unique set of symptoms and can make daily life difficult.  

In this article, we will look into the major psychological disorders list and give you a few examples of the issues.  

List of Psychological Disorders

1. Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety disorder is a persistent feeling of worry and fear that can affect daily functioning. 

If you have an anxiety disorder, you may experience symptoms consistently for a long period of time.  

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) notes that anxiety disorders are quite widespread and affect a significant number of adults globally.  

Some of the common examples of anxiety include: 

  • Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) 
  • Social anxiety disorder 
  • Separation anxiety disorder 
  • Specific phobias 
  • Panic disorder 

Common symptoms across these disorders are:  

  • Persistent and uncontrollable anxious thoughts 
  • Restlessness 
  • Difficulty concentrating 
  • Irritability 

Talk Your Heart Out (TYHO) psychologists in Singapore use psychotherapeutic approaches to treat anxiety.  

In particular, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is usually used as the primary form of treatment.  

However, your psychologist may use either one or several approaches based on the specific type of anxiety disorder. 

Visit our anxiety counselling page for more information about the type of treatment used for anxiety.  

An anxious person holding their head between their hands on a garden due to a psychological disorder.

2. Mood Disorders

Mood disorders appear in the major psychological disorders list. It may affect one’s emotional state.  

The two main types of disorders in this category are major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.  

Major depressive disorder (MDD) involves feeling sad all the time and having a lack of interest in life. If you have MDD, you may find it hard to perform daily activities like cleaning, cooking, or eating.  

Also See: How to Be Happy Again? Rediscovering Joy and Happiness 

Bipolar disorder, on the other hand, involves dramatic changes in mood, especially from a high state (ie mania) to a low one (ie depression). 

During mania, a person may feel extremely energetic or irritable and may make impulsive decisions. During a depressive episode, the person may feel sad, upset, or have severe fatigue.  

With the right and personalised therapeutic plan, you can manage and overcome mood disorders. Psychologists in Singapore can help you heal. 

Depression counselling in Singapore can give you more insights into the treatment plans. 

3. Trauma- And Stress-Related Disorders

Trauma- and stressor-related disorders come under the major psychological disorders list.  

Below is a list of some of the common types of stress/trauma disorders: 

  • Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) 
  • Adjustment Disorders   

You May Like Reading: How Trauma Affects Physical Health 

Common symptoms across stress disorders include: 

  • Experience severe anxiety, frustration, anger, or dissociative symptoms 
  • Feeling emotionally numb 
  • Feeling isolated or hopeless 
  • Having negative and unhelpful thoughts or flashbacks 

If you have uncontrollable anger or want to control anger in a relationship, please visit our anger management page to learn more.  

4. Personality Disorders

Personality disorders are one of the major categories of psychological disorders list.  

A person may have different patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that may diverge from society’s conventional way of functioning.  

The difference can, therefore, cause distress or affect the person’s daily life. Personality disorders can affect: 

  • Relationships dynamics 
  • Behavioural regulation 
  • Self-image 
  • Interaction with others 
  • Work-place performance 

You May Like Reading: Why Does My Mom Hate Me? Reasons You May Feel This Way 

Common types of personality disorders include:  

  • Antisocial Personality Disorder 
  • Avoidant Personality Disorder 
  • Borderline Personality Disorder 
  • Dependent Personality Disorder 
  • Histrionic Personality Disorder 
  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder 
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder 
  • Paranoid Personality Disorder 
  • Schizoid Personality Disorder 
  • Schizotypal Personality Disorder 

5. Sleep Disorders

Sleep disorders are a category in the major psychological disorders list as they severely affect our daily lives.  

Lack of sleep can make us feel lethargic and affect our concentration, attention span, physical health, and so on.  

Below are some of the common sleep disorders: 

  • Insomnia: A person may find it hard to fall asleep if they have insomnia.   
  • Sleep apnea: This condition causes pauses in breathing during sleep.  
  • Narcolepsy: Narcolepsy causes an irrepressible need to sleep. It can also cause sudden muscle weakness, known as cataplexy.  
  • Restless legs syndrome (RLS): If you feel uncomfortable sensations in your legs that urge you to move them, it might be RLS. RLS can also occur during the nighttime and disturb sleep cycles.   
  • Parasomnias: Activities like sleepwalking or experiencing night terrors during sleep are known as parasomnias. 

You can visit each TYHO psychologist’s profile to check if they can help you with sleep issues.  

A person laying on the work desk unable to fall asleep due to a psychological disorder called insomnia.

6. Eating Disorders

Eating disorders affect a person’s eating habits and perceptions about food and body image.  

Common types of eating disorders include:  

  • Anorexia Nervosa 
  • Bulimia Nervosa 
  • Binge Eating Disorder 
  • Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder 
  • Pica 
  • Rumination Disorder 

Please visit our eating disorders page if you would like to gain in-depth information about each type.  

7. Substance Use and Addictive Disorders

Substance use disorders are a key part of the list of psychological disorders.  

People may use substances like alcohol, drugs, and tobacco when they find it hard to cope with life challenges.  

Although these substances may give temporary relief, they may worsen physical and mental health in the long run.  

Below are common examples of addictive disorders: 

  • Alcohol Use Disorders 
  • Opioid Use Disorders 
  • Cannabis Use Disorders 
  • Stimulant Use Disorders 
  • Tobacco Use Disorders 

If you or someone you know suffers from any psychological disorders, please visit our Singapore psychologist page to seek help. 

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